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Editorial Reviews. Review. "Dr. Hirschfeld ist der unbestritten erste Kenner der Homosexualität. Das ihm zur Verfügung stehende Material über diese Fragen hat .
Table of contents

Through knowledge to justice! The anti-suicide message of Anders als die Andern reflected Hirschfeld's interest in the subject of the high suicide rate among homosexuals, and was intended to give hope to gay audiences. Until the November Revolution of , Prussia had a three-class voting system that effectively disfranchised most ordinary people, and allowed the Junkers to dominate Prussia.

After the November Revolution, universal suffrage came to Prussia, which become a stronghold of the Social Democrats.

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The Institute housed Hirschfeld's immense archives and library on sexuality and provided educational services and medical consultations; the clinical staff included psychiatrists Felix Abraham and Arthur Kronfeld , gynecologist Ludwig Levy-Lenz, dermatologist and endocrinologist Bernhard Schapiro, and dermatologist Friedrich Wertheim. Hirschfeld himself lived at the Institution on the second floor with his lover, Karl Giese , together with his sister Recha Tobias. People from around Europe and beyond came to the Institute to gain a clearer understanding of their sexuality.

Christopher Isherwood writes about his and W. Auden 's visit in his book Christopher and His Kind ; they were calling on Francis Turville-Petre , a friend of Isherwood's who was an active member of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. In addition, a number of noted individuals lived for longer or shorter periods of time in the various rooms available for rent or as free accommodations in the Institute complex.

Although inspired by Hirschfeld's life, the film is fictional. It contains invented characters and incidents and attributes motives and sentiments to Hirschfeld and others on the basis of little or no historical evidence. Hirschfeld biographer Ralf Dose notes, for instance, that "the figure of 'Dorchen' in Rosa von Praunheim's film The Einstein of Sex is complete fiction. Connecting the question of the legality of homosexuality to the legality of prostitution was a blurring of the issue, since these were different matters.

In , Hirschfeld predicted that there was no future for people like himself in Germany, and he would have to move abroad. Aware of a strong xenophobic tendency in the United States, where foreigners seen as trouble-makers were unwelcome, Hirschfeld tailored his message to American tastes. In an interview with the Germanophile American journalist George Sylvester Viereck for the Milwaukee Sentinel done in late November that epitomised his "straight turn" in America, Hirschfeld was presented as a sex expert whose knowledge could improve the sex lives of married American couples.

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In the interview with Viereck, Hirschfeld was presented as the wise "European expert on romantic love" who had come to teach heterosexual American men how to enjoy sex, claiming there was a close connection between sexual and emotional intimacy. S was in the middle of the Great Depression, Hirschfeld replied he was certain that United States would soon recover, thanks to the relentless drive of American men. At least part of the reason for his "straight turn" was financial; a Dutch firm had been marketing Titus's Pearls pills, which were presented in Europe as a cure for "scattered nerves" and in the United States as an aphrodisiac, and had been using Hirschfeld's endorsement to help with advertising campaign there.

The Age of Attraction: Age, Gender and the History of Modern Male Homosexuality

After his American tour, Hirschfeld went to Asia in February Iwaya, a Japanese doctor who lived in Berlin in —02 and who joined the Scientific-Humanitarian committee during his time there. After staying in the Dutch East Indies modern Indonesia , where Hirschfeld caused an uproar by speech comparing Dutch imperialism to slavery, Hirschfeld arrived in India in September Stead in The Pall Mall Gazette in , exposing rampant child prostitution in London as proving that sexuality in Britain could also be brutal and perverted: a matter which, he noted, did not interest Mayo in the slightest.

On 20 July , the Chancellor Franz von Papen carried out a coup that deposed the Braun government in Prussia, and appointed himself the Reich commissioner for the state. A conservative Catholic who had long been a vocal critic of homosexuality, Papen ordered the Prussian police to start enforcing Paragraph and to crack down in general on "sexual immorality" in Prussia. Less than four months after the Nazis took power, Hirschfeld's Institute was sacked. On the morning of 6 May, a group of university students belonging to the National Socialist Student League stormed into the institution, shouting " Brenne Hirschfeld!

By the time of the book burning, Hirschfeld had long since left Germany for a speaking tour that took him around the world; he never returned to Germany. In March , he stopped briefly in Athens , spent several weeks in Vienna and then settled in Zurich , Switzerland, in August Hirschfeld had stayed near Germany, hoping to return to Berlin if the political situation improved.

With the Nazi regime's unequivocal rise to power and with work completed on his tour book, he decided to go into exile in France. On his 65th birthday, 14 May , Hirschfeld arrived in Paris , where he lived in a luxurious apartment building at 24 Avenue Charles Floquet, facing the Champ de Mars. A year-and-a-half after arriving in France, in November , Hirschfeld moved south to Nice , a seaside resort on the Mediterranean coast. He lived in a luxurious apartment building with a view of the sea across an enormous garden on the Promenade des Anglais.

While in France, Hirschfeld finished a book he had been writing during his world tour, Rassismus Racism. It was published posthumously in English in The last of Hirschfeld's books published during his lifetime, L'Ame et l'amour, psychologie sexologique [The Human Spirit and Love: Sexological Psychology] Paris: Gallimard , , was published in French in late April ; [82] it was his only book that was never published in a German-language edition.

In the preface, he described his hopes for his new life in France:. In search of sanctuary, I have found my way to that country, the nobility of whose traditions, and whose ever-present charm, have already been as balm to my soul. I shall be glad and grateful if I can spend some few years of peace and repose in France and Paris, and still more grateful to be enabled to repay the hospitality accorded to me, by making available those abundant stores of knowledge acquired throughout my career. Nothing in gay literature is quite like the hundreds of anecdotes and case studies with which he illustrates his generalizations.

For example, he observed two Urnings in criminal court, re-united after weeks of being imprisoned separately, who achieved mutual orgasm simply by touching. No one in the courtroom noticed except Hirschfeld, who asked them afterwards if this is what had happened.

They said that it had. After chapters on the diagnosis of homosexuality and the childhood and adolescence of Uranian boys and girls, Hirschfeld devotes several chapters to "differential diagnoses," which distinguish between genuine homosexuality and such things as friendship, pseudohomosexuality, bisexuality, heterosexual horror, hermaphroditism, gynandromorphia, and transvestism.

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With regard to "pseudohomosexuality," one of Hirschfeld's opponents, Benedict Friedlaender, commented scathingly, "It is inconceivable what is pseudo about it. Even so, assuming that his discussion is mainly about males, he gives us a good idea what gay men did in his time. Hirschfeld describes all of these practices in detail. For anal intercourse men in his day used olive oil as a lubricant, and sometimes used condoms.


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Hirschfeld then analyzes theories on the origin and nature of homosexuality. His own opinion was that homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual orientations were inborn and unmodifiable.

Part Two treats homosexuality from the standpoints of sociology, history, anthropology, zoology and law. Although Hirschfeld assumes authorship for the book as a whole, it is clear that the chapters here are written by or in close collaboration with the specialists he acknowledges in the Introduction. The page chapter on "Homosexuality in Classical Antiquity" is superb. The main collaborative author here is probably the classical scholar Paul Brandt who sometimes wrote as "Hans Licht". Even Brandt's later 3-volume work, Sittengeschichte Griechenlands , translated into English in as Sexual Life in Ancient Greece , fails to include much of the raw material found in Hirschfeld.

After a brief survey of Egypt, Assyria and other cultures of the Near East, the chapter concentrates on Ancient Greece. Especially acute are analyses of the Plato dialogues and the Timarchea a speech misinterpreted by homophobes, who falsely claim that the Greeks proscribed sex between males.

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An excellent chapter, "The Legal and Social Victimization, Persecution, and Prosecution of Homosexual Man and Women," was either written by or under the direction of Eugen Wilhelm, a jurist who wrote for the Yearbook under the pseudonym of Numa Praetorius. After examining the Jewish and Christian scriptures and the writings of Philo Judaeus, Hirschfeld declares: "With regard to homosexuality, there cannot be any doubt that the historical bases of our present laws and interpretations are rooted in Judeo-Christianity. To the contrary quoting a Norwegian writer : "In the case of the North Germanic peoples, penal laws against the practice of man-manly love were introduced first by the Christians.

The final chapters deal with the struggle to restore the standing of gay men and lesbians, with an authoritative history of the early homosexual emancipation movement. Hirschfeld sometimes made mistakes, and some of his ideas and information are mainly of historic interest.